The Neuropsychology of ADHD
The neuropsychology of ADHD is a growing field with a wide range of treatments. In the last decade, advances in neuroimaging and transcranial nerve stimulation (TNS) have revealed that children and adolescents show accelerated neural plasticity. These findings make novel treatments using TNS an attractive clinical intervention. However, these therapies must be applied early in disorder, when the brain is still forming. These treatments can be highly effective, but they have many potential drawbacks.
A recent study has suggested that tDCS can positively affect a typical brain development early on and persistently. Neurotherapeutics, which target specific cognitive functions, has the potential to enhance brain plasticity in ADHD patients. To ensure efficacy, these therapies must be carefully tested and have minimal side effects. In addition, they need to be evaluated for long-term and short-term impact because they do not offer neuroplastic products.
There are several possible causes of ADHD, but the primary reason is believed to be trauma-related. Studies have shown that traumatic childhood events are associated with the development of ADHD behaviors. In addition, a lack of attachment systems and maternal smoking during pregnancy can damage the ability to regulate the environment. The result is a dysfunctional executive attention system that enables children with ADHD to become inattentive, disorganized, and inattentive.
Many models have been recommended to explain the neurobiology of ADHD. In general, a person with ADHD has reduced brain volumes in the prefrontal cortex and the striatal regions responsible for motor responses. The prefrontal cortex is the last part of the brain to develop and is the primary brain region involved in executive functions. Furthermore, the front-striato-parietal networks are the primary brain areas that control attention and emotion.
Dysfunctional Prefrontal Cortex
Several researchers have shown that the dysfunctional prefrontal cortex is associated with reduced control. This dysfunction is also likely to affect the ability to regulate behavior. The DMN and striatal-insular circuitry are also linked to the emergence of ADHD symptoms. Moreover, both networks have essential roles in the prevention and treatment of ADHD. The two neuropsychological regions of ADHD are the same. This suggests that they are related but in different ways.
Although neuroimaging is still in its infancy, it has a promising future. MRI and EEG techniques have the potential to reveal structural and functional brain changes. The striatum is the primary motor control brain region, and the MRI results have shown a decrease in this region in children and adults with ADHD. There have also been some exciting findings from various studies that have used the results of MRI to identify the brain structures of people with ADHD.
The DSM-IV Criteria
While the DSM-IV criteria are the gold standard for ADHD diagnosis, it is only a single symptom. A combination of objective and subjective neuroimaging data is needed to make an accurate diagnosis. It is also essential to recognize that children with ADHD have deficient signaling in the prefrontal cortex. This results in a wide range of disorders, including a lack of focus and hyperactivity. In addition, the DSM-IV criteria have an essential role in assessing ADHD.
In addition to the DMN, other areas of the brain are also affected in patients with ADHD. The striatum is included in the processing of emotions. The left prefrontal cortex is responsible for processing EF. In both cases, the ventral striatum is affected in the left hemisphere. This region is often compromised, resulting in poor social functioning, poor performance, and poor self-esteem. These symptoms can be caused by trauma, stress, and financial dependence.
Some neurodevelopmental disorders share a genetic link. Infection is a condition of the brain that results from damage to these brain areas. The brain may also be affected by other conditions, such as bipolar disorder. This disorder has a genetic component, which makes it more challenging to treat. This may lead to an underlying cause for the symptoms, leading to an increased risk of suicidal behavior. While it is not yet clear why some children with ADHD are at risk for these disorders, it is still essential to monitor the condition.
The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are critical in the pleasure and reward systems of the brain. The levels of these neurotransmitters vary significantly in patients with ADHD. In some cases, these levels are too low or too high. In other cases, the disease has no physical symptoms at all. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder should be based on the neuropsychology of the child. Its symptoms include impulsivity, aggression, and emotional dysregulation.